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      31.Hemingway Code Hero(海明威式英雄)

      Hemingway Code Hero, also called code hero, is one who, wounded but strong more sensitive, enjoys the pleasures of life (sex, alcohol, sport) in face of ruin and death, and maintains, through some notion of a code, an ideal of himself.

      2> barnes in the sun also Rises, Henry in a Farewell to arms and Santiago in the old man and the sea are typical of Hemingway Code Hero

      32.Impressionism(印象主義)

      Impressionism is a style of painting that gives the impression made by the subject on the artist without much attention to details. Writers accepted the same conviction that the personal attitudes and moods of the writer were legitimate elements in depicting character or setting or action.2>briefly, it is a style of literature characterized by the creation of general impressions and moods rather that realistic mood.

      33.Postmodernism(后現代主義)

      It is a disputed term that has occupied much recent debate about contemporary culture since the early 1980s. in its simplest and least satisfactory sense it refers generally to the phase of 20th century western culture that succeeded the reign of hign modernism, thus indicating the products of the “space age” after some time in the 1950s. More often, though it is applied to a cultural condition prevailing in the advanced capitalist societies since the 1960s, characterized by a superabundance of disconnected images and styles. In this sense, post modernity is said to be a culture of fragmentary sensations, eclectic nostalgia, disposable simulacra, and promiscuous superficiality, in which the traditionally valued qualities of depth, coherence, meaning originality and authenticity are evacuated or dissolved amid the random swirl of empty signals.

      這個具有爭議的名字概念是從20世紀80年代早期開始應用于近幾十年的現代文化領域。最簡單也最難說服人的說法是后現代主義是20世紀西方文明繼高度現代主義之后的一個階段。后現代主義是50年代太空時代的產物。通常它被用來解釋自60年代起先進資本主義社會主要的社會文化現象。從這個意義上說。后現代主義被認為是片斷構建的編織。折衷的懷舊主義,濫用的仿物以及混雜的淺浮,而傳統所強調的深度。連貫。意義的原創性,真實性都在空洞信號的隨意泛濫中消失瓦解。

      34.Confessional poetry(自白派詩歌)

      It is an autobiographical mode of verse that reveals the poet‘s personal problems with unusual frankness. The term is usually applied to certain poets of the United states from the late 1950s to the late 1960s, notably Robert Lowell. The term’s distinctive sense depends on the candid examination of what were at the time of writing virtually unmentionable kinds of private distress. The genuine strengths of confessional poets, combined with the pity evoked by their high suicide rate, encouraged in the reading public a romantic confusion between poetic excellence and inner torment.

      自白詩歌是一種自傳體詩歌。詩歌主要用不尋常的坦白展示詩人的個人內心問題。自白詩歌是指50年代后期到60年代后期出現的詩人。特別是羅伯特。洛厄爾。此概念有時在廣義上指任何個人或自傳的詩歌,但自白詩歌最明顯的特征,是坦誠揭露寫作時的所思所想,個人心里憂傷的流露。自白派詩人杰出的文學才華和他們由于痛苦而引起的高自殺率,以及詩歌中處處流露著痛苦,迷茫,悲觀,隱晦的氣氛,讓讀者們閱讀時產生一種詩歌精妙和內心痛苦的迷茫感。

      35.The New York School(紐約派)

      The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City, critics argued that their work was a reaction to the confessional‘s movement in contemporary poetry. Their poetic subject matter was often light, violent, or observational, while their writing style was often described as cosmopolitan and world-traveled. the poets often drew inspiration from surrealism and the contemporary avant-garde art movement, in particular the action painting of their friends in the New York City art circle.there are also commonalities between the New York School and the earlier Beat Generation poets active in 1940s and 1950s New York City.

      紐約派詩人是50年代活躍在紐約的美國詩人和畫家的非正式群體。評論家認為他們是對同時代自白派詩歌運動的反抗。他們作品的主題通常輕快,激烈或者觀察入微。他們的寫作風格是全球性的。他們接受了超現實主義和先鋒藝術運動,特別是紐約畫界的朋友的影響創作詩。他們與40,50年代紐約的垮掉一代詩人有一定共同點。

      36.The Absurd (荒謬派)

      It is a term derived from the existentialism of Albert Camus, and often applied to the modern sense of human purposelessness in a universe without meaning or value. Many 20th century writers of prose fiction have stressed the absurd nature of human existence: notable instances are the novels and stories of Franz Kafka, in which the characters face alarmingly incomprehensible predicaments.

      37.The Black Mountain Poets(黑山派詩人)

      The Black Mountain Poets refer to a group of poets active on the contemporary scene, as these people were either associated with Black Mountain college, or with Black Mountain Review, they have become known as “The Black Mountain Poets”2> the leading figure of this school of poetry was Charles Olson.



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