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      24.Expressionism(表現主義)

      Expressionism refers to a movement in Germany early in the 20th century. In which a number of painters sought to avoid the representation of external reality and ,instead, to project a highly personal or subjective vision of the world.

      2> expressionism is a reaction against realism or naturalism, aiming at presenting a post-war world violently distorted.

      3> in a further sense, the term is sometimes applied to the belief that literary works are essentially expressions of their authors‘moods and thoughts; this has been the dominant assumption about literature since the rise of romanticism.

      25.The Beat Generation(垮掉的一代)(來源:自考365 網 zikao365.com)

      The members of The Beat Generation were new bohemian libertines, who engaged in a spontaneous, sometimes messy, creativity.

      2> The Beat writers produced a body of written work controversial both for its advocacy of non-conformity and for its non-conforming style.

      3> the major beat writings are Allen Ginsberg‘s Howl. Howl became the manifesto of The Beat Generation.

      26.Jazz Age(爵士時代)

      The Jazz Age describes the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the years between World War I and World War II. Particularly in North America. With the rise of the great depression, the values of this age saw much decline. Perhaps the most representative literary work of the age is American writer Fitzgerald‘s The Great Gatsby. Highlighting what some describe as the decadence and hedonism, as well as the growth of individualism. Fitzgerald is largely credited with coining the term“ Jazz Age”。

      27.Surrealism(超現實主義)

      An anti-rational movement of imaginative liberation in European in art and literature in the 1920s and 1930s, which launched by Andre Breton after his break from the Dada group in 1922. Surrealism seeks to break down the boundaries between rationality and irrationality, exploring the resources and revolutionary energies of dreams, hallucinations and sexual desire. Influenced both by the symbolists and by Sigmund Freud‘s theories of the unconscious, the surrealists experimented with automatic writing and with the free association of random images brought in surprising juxtaposition.

      超現實主義是20世紀20年代和30年代在歐洲文藝和文學界發起的一場反對理性提倡思想解放的運動。這場運動由安德烈。布里多尼和達達派決裂后發起。超現實主義試圖打破理性和非理性之間的界限。探討夢?;糜X以及性欲的源頭和動力。由于受到象征主義和弗洛伊德無意思理論的影響,超現實主義將自由聯想和自由寫作以不可思議的形式并置合并在一起。

      28.Metaphysical poets(玄學派詩人)

      It is the name given to a diverse group of 17th century English poets whose work is notable for its ingenious use of intellectual and theological concepts in surprising conceits, strange paradoxes and far-fetched imagery. The leading Metaphysical poet was John Donne, whose colloquial, argumentative abruptness of rhythm and tone distinguishes his style from the conventions of Elizabethan love lyrics.

      29.New Criticism(新批評主義)

      New Criticism is a movement in American literary criticism from the 1930s to the 1960s, concentrating on the verbal complexities and ambiguities of short poems considered as self-sufficient objects without attention to their origins or effects. The name comes from John Chrisom‘s book The New Criticism.

      30.Feminism(女權主義)

      Feminism incorporates both a doctrine of equal rights for women and an ideology of social transformation aiming to create a world for women beyond simple social equality.

      2>in general, feminism is ideology of women‘s liberation based on the belief that women suffer injustice because of their sex. Under this broad umbrella various feminisms offer differing analyses of the causes, or agents, of female oppression.

      3> definitions of feminism by feminists tend to be shaped by their training, ideology or race. So, for example, Marxist and socialist feminists stress the interaction within feminism of class with gender and focus on social distinctions between men and women. Black feminists argue much more for an integrated analysis which can unlock the multiple systems of oppression.



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