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      2020年貴州自考英美文學選讀知識點四

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      16. American Romanticism(美國浪漫主義)

      Romanticism refers to an artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual‘s expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions. The romantic period in American literature stretches from the end of the 18th century through the outbreak of the civil war. It was an age of great westward expansion, of the increasing gravity of the slavery question, of an intensification of the spirit of embattled sectionalism in the south, and of a powerful impulse to reform in the north. In literature it was America’s first great creative period, a full flowering of the romantic impulse on American soil. Although foreign influences were strong, American romanticism exhibited from the very outset distinct features of its own. First, American romanticism was in essence the expression of “a real new experience”and contained “an alien quality” for the simple reason that “the spirit of the place” was radically new and alien. Second, puritan influence over American romanticism was conspicuously noticeable. Emerging as new writers of strength and creative power were the novelists Hawthorne, Melville, the poets Dickinson, Whitman, the essayists Thoreau, Emerson. These American writers had made a great literary period by capturing on their pages the enthusiasm and the optimism of that dream.

      浪漫主義是于18世紀晚期發起于歐洲的一場藝術性及思想性的運動,它注重自然,強調個人情感表達與想像力,向既定的社會制度和傳統挑戰,與古典主義形式相分離。美國的浪漫主義時期從18世紀末一直延續到內戰爆發前。這個時期發生了大規模的西遷運動,日益嚴峻的奴隸問題,南部各州的地方保護主義的是益盛行以及北部呼聲愈演愈烈火的革新運動。在文學上,這個時期是美國第一次偉大的創作時期,浪漫主義的種子在北美的土壤里生根發芽。盡管受到歐洲浪漫主義運動的影響,美國浪漫主義文學仍然呈現出自己的獨特風格。第一,美國浪漫主義在本質上是一個“全新的經歷”的表達,因這個新大陸充滿著生機和活力而使美國的浪漫主義蘊含異國的氣質;第二,清教主義對美國浪漫主義有著顯著的影響,作為新生創作力量的有小說家霍桑,麥爾維爾。詩人狄金森和惠特曼,散文家梭羅,愛默生。這些美國作家充滿熱情地記錄下這個偉大時代的樂觀主義精神。

      17. Transcendentalism(超驗主義)  (來源:自考365 網 zikao365.com)

      Transcendentalism is literature, philosophical and literary movement that flourished in new England from about 1836 to 1860. it is the summit of American Romanticism. it originated among a small group of intellectuals who were reacting against the orthodoxy of Calvinism and the rationalism of the Unitarian Church, developing instead their own faith centering on the divinity of humanity and the natural world. Transcendentalism derived some of its basic idealistic concepts from romantic German philosophy, and from such English authors as Coleridge and Wordsworth. Its mystical aspects were partly influenced by Indian and Chinese religious teachings. Although Transcendentalism was never a rigorously systematic philosophy, it had some basic tenets that were generally shared by its adherents. The beliefs that God is immanent in each person and in nature and that individual intuition is the highest source of knowledge led to an optimistic emphasis on individualism, self-reliance, and rejection of traditional authority. The ideas of Transcendentalism were most eloquently expressed by Ralph waldo Emerson in such essays as Nature, and by Henry David Thoreau in his book Walden.

      超驗主義是從1836至1860于新英格蘭發起的一場文學,哲學以及藝術運動。即浪漫主義的頂點。由于一小群知識分子反對加爾文教派和唯一神論教派理性的形式主義,他們從而提出人與自然的神圣這一信念。超驗主義受到德國浪漫主義哲學以及英國浪漫主義作家柯勒律治和沃茲華斯的影響,還在一定程度上受到東方古典哲學和宗教的影響。盡管超驗主義思想并不能算是嚴格意義上的哲學, 但是它還是有一些基本原則的。超驗主義者認為人人都有內在的神性,只有通過接觸自然才能使神性與人的天性相互融合。從而超驗主義十分強調個人主義,自立,拒絕傳統權威思想。超驗主義思想在愛默生的<論自然> 和梭羅的<瓦爾登湖>等書中表現得淋漓盡致。



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