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      12.The Victorian period(維多利亞時期) 

      In this period, the novel became the most widely read and the most vital and challenging expression of progressive thought. While sticking to the principle of faithful representation of the 18th century realist novel, novelists in this period carried their duty forward to criticism of the society and the defense of the mass.

      2> although writing from different points of view and with different techniques, they shared one thing in common, that is, they were all concerned about the fate of the common people. They were angry with the inhuman social institutions, the decaying social morality as represented by the money-worship and Utilitarianism, and the widespread misery, poverty and injustice.

      3>their truthful picture of people‘s life and bitter and strong criticism of the society had done much in awakening the public consciousness to the social problems and in the actual improvement of the society.

      4> Charles Dickens is the leading figure of the Victorian period.

      13. Modernism(現代主義)

      Modernism is comprehensive but vague term for a  movement , which begin in the late 19th century and which has had a wide influence internationally during much of the 20th century.

      2> modernism takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theoretical case.

      3> the term pertains to all the creative arts. Especially poetry, fiction, drama, painting, music and architecture.

      4> in England from early in the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s, in America from shortly before the first world war and on during the inter-war period, modernist tendencies were at their most active and fruitful.

      5>as far as literature is concerned, Modernism reveals a breaking away from established rules, traditions and conventions. fresh ways of looking at man‘s position and function in the universe and many experiments in form and style. It is particularly concerned with language and how to use it and with writing itself.

      14. Stream of consciousness(意識流)(or interior monologue)

      In literary criticism, Stream of consciousness denotes a literary technique which seeks to describe an individual‘s point of view by giving the written equivalent of the character’s thought processes. Stream of consciousness writing is strongly associated with the modernist movement. Its introduction in the literary context, transferred from psychology, is attributed to May Sinclair. Stream of consciousness writing is usually regarded as a special form of interior monologue and is characterized by associative leaps in syntax and punctuation that can make the prose difficult to follow, tracing as they do a character‘s fragmentary thoughts and sensory feelings. Famous writers to employ this technique in the English language include James Joyce and William Faulkner.

      學術界認為意識流是一種通過直接描述人物思維過程來尋求個人視角的文學寫作技巧。意識流是現代主義運動的體現,它首先出現在心現學領域,由梅。辛克拉提出的,后引進文學領域。意識流寫作通常被認為是一種特殊形式的內心獨白。它的特別是聯想性,以句法和標點的跳躍,文章的晦澀難懂為特征。來表現人物的片斷思維和感官性直覺。比較著名的使用此技巧的有喬伊斯。??思{。

      15. American Puritanism(美國清教主義)

      Puritanism was a religious reform that arose within the Church of England in the late 16th century. Under siege from church and crown, it sent an offshoot in the third and fourth decades of the 17th to the northern English colonies in the new world——a migration that laid the foundation for the religious, intellectual, and social order of New England. Puritanism, however, was not only a historically specific phenomenon coincident with the founding of new England, it was also a way of being in the world——a style of response to lived experience——that has reverberated through American life ever since. Doctrinally, puritans adhered to the five points of Calvinism as codified at the synod of dort in 1619:

      1) Unconditional election: the idea that God had decreed at the synod of damned and who was saved from before the beginning of the world;

      2) limited atonement: the idea that Christ died for the elect only;

      3) Total depravity: humanity‘s utter corruption since the fall;

      4) Irresistible grace: regeneration as entirely a work of God, which cannot be re3sisted and to which the sinner contributes nothing;

      5) The perseverance of the saints: the elect, despite their backsliding and faintness of heart, cannot fall away from grace.

      清教主義是16世紀晚期在英國教會內進行的一場宗教改革。在教會和皇權的雙重壓力之下,清教的一個分支于17世紀30,40年代遷至美洲新大陸的北方殖民地,他們為新英格蘭奠定了宗教、知識和社會秩序的基礎。清教主義不僅符合新英格蘭成立的特定歷史,而且一直反映了美國生活的一種生活方式。從教義上說,清教徒遵循加爾文派于1619年多特宗教會議上制定的五條信條:1)無條件揀選:神沒有任憑人在罪中滅亡,而是在創世以前就揀選了一群人旅行拯救; 2)有限救贖: 基督的死只是為了特定數目的選民而死; 3)完全墮落:自從亞當偷吃善惡果后,整個人類都墮落了;4)不可抗拒的恩典:圣靈的能力在罪人心里運行,一直到他認罪悔改方休;5)圣徒的堅守:圣徒是神所挑選的,無論他們如何退步,始終在神的感召下。



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